General Introduction The tradition of Indian historiography looks at the history written outside the boundaries of India, then it is known that the first attempts in this direction were made by Greek writers, including - Herodotus, Nearchus, Megasthenes, Plutarch, Arrian, Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy are prominent. The second phase of writing history begins with Alberuni. He was a contemporary of Mahmud Ghaznavi. Alberuni studied Sanskrit and tried to get a proper knowledge of Indian sources. After this, European historians (mainly Christian preachers) wrote many books about India. Imperialist historiography has in fact been influenced by the activities of evangelists in India. Christians and colonials are mentioned in this type of Indian historiography. In addition, the establishment of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784 has also influenced the Indian history. In imperialist historiography, interest in expanding the European colonies for economic self-interest is reflected in the then debates concerning religious beliefs and nationalities. Prominent historians of this category include - William Jons, MaxMuller, Monier Williams, Karl Marx, F, W. Hangal, Vicente Arthur Smith, etc. have been important. Nationalist ideologies have also influenced the Indian history.
Nationalist ideologies have also influenced Indian history. This approach presented a real challenge to the imperialist version of history. The most notable historian of this period - D.D. R. Bhandarkar, H.D. C . Raychaudhary, R. C . Majumdar, P.V. V. Kane a . Neelkanth Shastri, K.K. P. Jaiswal, A. s . Altaker etc. have been important. The influence of Marxist ideology in historiography has been prevalent in the 20th century. In this type of historiography, universal rules and various stages of development are studied. D. D. Kosambi is considered the father of this ideology. Apart from this R. Channa, R. s . Sharma, Romila Thapar, Irfan Habib, Bipin Chandra and Satish Chandra are some of the Marxist historians.
Geography of India:- The study of the history of any country is incomplete without its geographical study. It is noteworthy that the word 'Hindu' originated from the Great Indus River . India has a geographical division into 5 parts in ancient literature. These are - North (Udichya), Middle (Majjhim country), East (Oriental - Alexander era historians called East as Passi '), West (Aparantha or Pratyakta) and South (Dakshinapath). India can be clearly divided into 4 main parts-
1.the northern mountain region,
2.the northern plains of central India,
4.the narrow and the long and marine plain.Download Attachment