Miscellaneous Study Materials 18 Nov 2019

Composition & Structure of Atmosphere

Troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth’s atmosphere and contains approximately 80% of the atmosphere’s mass and 99% of its water vapour and aerosols. The average depth of the troposphere is approximately 17 km in the middle latitudes.
It thickness of the Troposphere is maximum at equator, deeper in the tropics, up to 20 km, and shallower near the polar regions, at 7 km in summer, and indistinct in winter. In India, it is taken to be around 16 Kilometers. Download Attachment

Earth's Energy Budget

Earth's Energy Budget Download Attachment

Atmospheric Pressure & Global Winds

Air has weight and a column of air extending vertically over a given area on earth‟s surface exerts pressure. The atmospheric pressure is measured as a force per unit of area and most common unit of measuring the air pressure is millibar. The instrument used for measuring pressure is Barometer. Some barometers are calibrated to show pressure in mercury inches. At constant temperature of 0°C and latitude of 45°, 1049 millibar is equal to 31 inches of mercury. Barograph is used to take continuous readings of air pressure. Pressure Belts of Earth Download Attachment